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713-522-7911

Dr. Roger Morefield Associate Professor
Economics, Finance & DEIS
713/525-2121
mofield@stthom.edu

Degrees

  • Doctor of Philosophy - Economics - DUKE UNIVERSITY (1977)
  • Master of Arts - Economics - DUKE UNIVERSITY (1975)

Publications

  • "An Actor-Oriented Empirical Model of the Roots of Terrorism"
    Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences
    This paper presents a model that describes the process which might cause terrorism. A series of multiple regression analyses is employed to define the circumstances from which terrorism is most likely to emerge. The findings are that domestic terrorism is more likely to appear in fragmented societies with a certain degree of frustration without, however, confirming “poverty-rooted” explanations.
    (2012) Vol. 24 Page 44-57
  • "Charter Cities and the Aerotropolis in Colombia"
    International Business and Economics Research Journal
    Based on its income per capita, Colombia meets the World Bank criteria for classification as an upper middle income country. But it still has many of the earmarks of a developing country. These include its high poverty level (45%), high infant mortality rate (16 deaths per 1000 live births), and lower life expectancy (74 years) than most developed countries. The capital city, Bogota, contains one-fifth of Colombia’s population, which is typical of the “urban giantism” of developing countries. Colombia’s income inequality is acute, with the lowest decile of households receiving 0.8% of household incomes, while the highest decile receives 45%. This results in a Gini coefficient of 58, the ninth highest in the world. The paradox is that while Colombia’s per-capita GDP and GNI indicate that it is an upper-middle income country, its poverty, income inequality, infant mortality rate, and other socioeconomic indicators look very much like those of a low-income country. This raises an interesting question: how can Colombia continue its development, presumably toward becoming a high-income country, while it is addressing its disproportionate poverty levels and income inequality? This paper investigates the prospects and challenges of implementing two relatively new ideas in economic development. The first is the use of Paul Romer’s idea of charter cities to enhance economic development in Colombia. Charter cities could be used to create more dynamic enterprise zones than now exist in Colombia. Romer advocates that countries set aside currently uninhabited city-size special reform zones to be charter cities. These cities would have a charter or constitution which specifies the governing rules. These rules would be good rules (or institutions) which would be supportive of entrepreneurial activity and a robust business climate. Charter cities could presumably be like a “clean slate” without all the developing-country plethora of rules and regulations that hinder development in established cities such as Cairo and Mumbai. Romer cites the example of Hong Kong as an extraordinarily successful early type of charter city which was governed by different rules for 99 years before it was ceded back to the People’s Republic of China by Great Britain in 1997. The second type of development tool for Colombia explored in this paper is John Kasarda’s “aerotropolis.” An aerotropolis is a city built around an airport. Traditional cities sprang up around existing trade routes along navigable waterways or where road and railroads met and crossed. The twenty-first century equivalent of that, according to Kasarda, is where “highways in the sky” interact with productive facilities on the ground at or near airports to be part of an ever-growing global supply chain. In this paper, some possible locations for charter cities and aerotropolises in Colombia are explored and their economic impact is assessed. The paper concludes that both can assist Colombia in reducing poverty and income inequality, but with certain qualifications. It also suggests that a hybrid of the two, an aerotropolis that is also a charter city, can significantly contribute to Colombia’s economic development.
    (2012) Vol. 11 Page 1099-1106
  • "Germany's Demographic Transition and International Trade, 2000-2040"
    Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences
    This paper is a study of how Germany’s aging and declining population in the twenty-first century is directly related to its international trade patterns and indirectly related to other aspects of the economy that also affect patterns of trade. The United Nations estimates that Germany’s population will decrease by 6.1% by 2040 from its 2005 peak. Germany’s median age is estimated to increase by 25% during the same period. In addition, the percentage of the population aged 65 and over is estimated to rise from 16.3% to 31%. The implications of these dramatic demographic changes for the German economy are discussed and connections are drawn from these changes to their effects on Germany’s international sector. The literature on the effects of such changes is briefly surveyed with an emphasis on areas such as demographic transition in Germany and international trade in the German economy. The effects of demographic change in the workplace, effects on economic growth, saving, investment, and capital formation, and effects on invention, innovation, and technological advance are discussed. Conclusions and interpretations about the effects of demographic transition on Germany’s international trade are then drawn.
    (2012) Vol. 24 Page 122-132
  • "A Study of the Effects of Backshoring in the EU"
    Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences
    With the increased globalization and trade liberalization of the mid-1990s and later, companies around the world began locating production of manufactured goods and services outside their home countries. This activity can be defined as offshoring, that is, a type of outsourcing that goes beyond the boundaries of the home country. Companies in the EU, especially in Germany, were eagerly seeking lower labor costs, access to new markets, and a good place to produce output tailored to local needs and tastes. But many of them failed to adequately weigh the costs of offshoring against its benefits, and have encountered problems that include product quality, logistics, inflexibility, and several others discussed in this paper. Those who returned all or some of this production home are said to have “backshored” or “reshored” it. A study of offshoring by German firms found that one-sixth to one-fourth of them did some backshoring within 4 years. French IT firms that offshored IT work complained of unanticipated cost, quality, and logistics problems. A study of UK manufacturers that offshored production in 2008-2009 found that 14% had already backshored it. This paper discusses the emotionally charged debate that resulted from offshoring which likely led to pressure on firms to backshore. The literature on backshoring is briefly surveyed and backshoring is then analyzed from the vantage point of international trade theory.
    (2011) Vol. 22 Page 10
  • "Germany's Demographic Transition and International Trade 2000-2040"
    : This paper is a study of how Germany’s aging and declining population in the twenty-first century is directly related to its international trade patterns and indirectly to other aspects of the economy that also affect patterns of trade. The United Nations estimates that Germany’s population will decrease by 6.4% from its 2005 peak to 2040. Germany’s median age is estimated to increase by 25% during the same period. In addition, the percentage of the population aged 65 and over is estimated to rise from 16.3% to 31%. The implications of these dramatic demographic changes for the German economy are discussed and connections are drawn from these changes to their effects on Germany’s international sector. The literature on the effects of such changes is briefly surveyed with an emphasis on areas such as demographic transition in Germany and international trade in the German economy. The effects of demographic change in the workplace, effects on economic growth, saving, investment, and capital formation, and effects on invention, innovation, and technological advance are discussed. Conclusions and interpretations about the effects of demographic transition on Germany’s international trade are then
    American Society of Business and Behavioral Scienc (2011) Page 256-164
  • "An Actor Oriented Empirical Model of the Roots of Terrorism"
    This paper presents a model that describes the process which might cause terrorism. To define the circumstances from which terrorism is most likely to emerge, a series of multiple regression analyzes is employed. The findings are that domestic terrorism is more likely to appear in fragmented societies with a certain degree of frustration without, however, confirming “poverty-rooted” explanations. The article concludes that the “political access school” explains the number of terrorist groups more convincingly than the frequency of terrorist attacks. The term “Arab Spring” refers to the series of demonstrations and revolutions taking place in Arab countries in early 2011. This model forecasts a longer period of transition and instability, although democracy itself will cause political violence to decrease in the long term. At the same time, preventing actual forms of “home-grown” radicalism in Europe means taking seriously the frustration and exclusion felt by young Muslims living in Western countries. This requires an understanding of “integration” that includes the whole society. Financial aid is a necessary, but not a sufficient, answer. The frustration and exclusion felt by these individuals seems to be stronger than deprivation.
    American Society of Business and Behavioral Scienc (2011) Page 10-29
  • "Economics and Forensics of Fraud and Abuse by Tax-Exempt Religious Organizations Versus the First Amendment"
    Journal of Applied Business Research
    This study focuses on the conflict between First Amendment rights of churches and religious organizations and the need by public authorities to investigate and regulate abuses of tax exemptions. The relative lack of accountability of religious organizations opens the door to a number of abusive schemes and scams. Table 1 shows that the IRS has attempted in recent years to improve its ability to enforce regulations pertaining to tax-exempt organizations. Table 2 shows that the number of Tax Exempt tax returns examined by the IRS has increased by 106% from 2005 to 2009, the number of examinations in 2009 still amounted to only 1.24% of returns filed. Table 3 shows that, at the state level, the number of prosecutions and legal actions taken in 2007 by states was a total of 513, just slightly more than 10 per state. Given the obstacles faced by Federal and state enforcement authorities, self-regulation and self-policing by charitable and tax-exempt organizations are likely to be the only way the faithful will receive additional protection against those who would use religion as a tool to mislead them and misappropriate their gifts.
    (2011) Vol. 27 Page 11
  • "Economics and Forensics of Fraud and Abuse by Tax-Exempt Religious Organizations Versus the First Amendment"
    With the increased globalization and trade liberalization of the mid-1990s and later, companies around the world began locating production of manufactured goods and services outside their home countries. This activity can be defined as offshoring, that is, a type of outsourcing that goes beyond the boundaries of the home country. Companies in the EU, especially in Germany, were eagerly seeking lower labor costs, access to new markets, and a good place to produce output tailored to local needs and tastes. But many of them failed to adequately weigh the costs of offshoring against its benefits, and have encountered problems that include product quality, logistics, inflexibility, and several others discussed in this paper. Those who returned all or some of this production home are said to have “backshored” or “reshored” it. A study of offshoring by German firms found that one-sixth to one-fourth of them did some backshoring within 4 years. French IT firms that offshored IT work complained of unanticipated cost, quality, and logistics problems. A study of UK manufacturers that offshored production in 2008-2009 found that 14% of them had already backshored it. This paper discusses the emotionally charged debate that resulted from offshoring which likely led to pressure on firms to backshore. The literature on backshoring is briefly surveyed and backshoring is then analyzed from the vantage point of international trade theory.
    The Clute Institute for Academic Research (2010) Vol. 10 Page 11
  • "A Study of the Effects of Backshoring in the EU"
    With the increased globalization and trade liberalization of the mid-1990s and later, companies around the world began locating production of manufactured goods and services outside their home countries. This activity can be defined as offshoring, that is, a type of outsourcing that goes beyond the boundaries of the home country. Companies in the EU, especially in Germany, were eagerly seeking lower labor costs, access to new markets, and a good place to produce output tailored to local needs and tastes. But many of them failed to adequately weigh the costs of offshoring against its benefits, and have encountered problems that include product quality, logistics, inflexibility, and several others discussed in this paper. Those who returned all or some of this production home are said to have “backshored” or “reshored” it. A study of offshoring by German firms found that one-sixth to one-fourth of them did some backshoring within 4 years. French IT firms that offshored IT work complained of unanticipated cost, quality, and logistics problems. A study of UK manufacturers that offshored production in 2008-2009 found that 14% of them had already backshored it. This paper discusses the emotionally charged debate that resulted from offshoring which likely led to pressure on firms to backshore. The literature on backshoring is briefly surveyed and backshoring is then analyzed from the vantage point of international trade theory.
    American Society of Business and Behavioral Scienc (2010) Page 55-62
  • "Hub-And-Spoke Airlines Versus Low-Cost Airlines And Price Discrimination"
    Journal of Business Economics Research
    This study examines the impact of the continuing trend in the U.S. Airline industry away from hub-and-spoke (network) airlines and toward low-cost airlines. The model of this study examines the level of success which the network carriers may experience by using market segmentation and price discrimination to sustain profitability in the face of the growth in market share held by low-cost carrier airlines.
    (2010) Vol. 8 Page 6
  • "An Analysis of Offshoring Manufacturing to Reduce Costs"
    Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences
    Offshoring as a specific form of outsourcing has been growing in scope since the 1970’s. The process gained speed with “Y2K” concerns in the late 1990’s and with the installation of greater amounts of transoceanic fiber-optics. Large IT projects are commonly shared among facilities in several parts of the globe. However, offshoring of manufacturing presents problems not present in offshored IT work. Lured by the appearance of large savings in direct labor costs from offshoring, many firms have rushed into moving manufacturing and product development offshore with inadequate analysis of and preparation for the difficulties involved. By some estimates, no more than 20% of companies that engage in offshoring of manufacturing actually benefit from it. Recently a retrenchment has occurred, as management has realized that the additional costs of offshoring may have exceeded the benefits. This paper presents a framework for analysis of the challenges and opportunities faced by firms as they address this issue for themselves. An example calculation of manufacturing labor cost is given and additional factors that should be considered in the offshoring decision are presented and analyzed. All the costs and benefits of locating manufacturing and product development outside the home country should be carefully weighed to determine if higher profitability will be the result.
    (2009) Vol. 21 Page 129-139
  • "A Comparative Study of Residents’ Perceptions of Environmental Quality in the Texas Golden Triangle Area"
    International Journal of Business and Public Administration
    This study examines the attitudes of Golden Triangle area residents in Southeast Texas towards their quality of life. It focuses on residents’ perceptions of the environmental effects of the petrochemical industry in the region, and their view of the level of environmental responsibility taken by local firms. The data for this study are from a survey conducted locally of 3,272 individuals. Statistical methods such as ANOVA and logistic regression are used to analyze and ascertain if there are significant relationships between the response variables and the set of independent variables. Variables tested include demographic and locational variables such as total household income, gender, age, ethnicity, level of education, and length of time in the area. Significant differences in perceptions towards the impacts and benefits of the petrochemical industry across cohorts were found.
    (2009) Vol. 6 Page 15
  • "Online Auctions: A study of Bidder Satisfaction"
    Despite the immense popularity of online auction websites, the existing literature provides little understanding of what causes users to choose one auction site over another. One way to examine this is to explore users’ satisfaction with auction websites. The current study extends past literature on user computing satisfaction to evaluate bidder satisfaction from the usage of online auction websites. A greater understanding of bidder satisfaction can facilitate better future website design, thus increasing the profitibility and success of the online auction industry.
    Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Amer (2009) Vol. 16 Page 14
  • "Homevoters, Race, and Toxic Facilities in Tennessee"
    Real Estate Review
    Fischel’s Homevoter Hypothesis describes the way homeowners may respond when noxious, or toxic, facilities are sited near their homes. The analysis in this paper formally tests this hypothesis using Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data from Tennessee counties. Results indicate that homeownership is not a significant indicator of toxic site location over the entire dataset. However, following the tightened TRI regulations in 1999, and the significant rise in home values since 2000, homeownership appears to be a significant determinant of TRI site location. Results also indicate that race was not a significant factor in TRI site location after 2000.
    (2009) Vol. 38 Page 30
  • "Superfund Sites and Race: Evidence from Houston"
    Southwestern Economic Review
    (2009) Vol. 36 Page 187-196

Presentations

  • "Charter Cities and the Aerotropolis in Colombia" (2012)
    The 2012 International Business & Economics Research Conference
    Based on its income per capita, Colombia meets the World Bank criteria for classification as an upper middle income country. But it still has many of the earmarks of a developing country. These include its high poverty level (45%), high infant mortality rate (16 deaths per 1000 live births), and lower life expectancy (74 years) than most developed countries. The capital city, Bogota, contains one-fifth of Colombia’s population, which is typical of the “urban giantism” of developing countries. Colombia’s income inequality is acute, with the lowest decile of households receiving 0.8% of household incomes, while the highest decile receives 45%. This results in a Gini coefficient of 58, the ninth highest in the world. The paradox is that while Colombia’s per-capita GDP and GNI indicate that it is an upper-middle income country, its poverty, income inequality, infant mortality rate, and other socioeconomic indicators look very much like those of a low-income country. This raises an interesting question: how can Colombia continue its development, presumably toward becoming a high-income country, while it is addressing its disproportionate poverty levels and income inequality? This paper investigates the prospects and challenges of implementing two relatively new ideas in economic development. The first is the use of Paul Romer’s idea of charter cities to enhance economic development in Colombia. Charter cities could be used to create more dynamic enterprise zones than now exist in Colombia. Romer advocates that countries set aside currently uninhabited city-size special reform zones to be charter cities. These cities would have a charter or constitution which specifies the governing rules. These rules would be good rules (or institutions) which would be supportive of entrepreneurial activity and a robust business climate. Charter cities could presumably be like a “clean slate” without all the developing-country plethora of rules and regulations that hinder development in established cities such as Cairo and Mumbai. Romer cites the example of Hong Kong as an extraordinarily successful early type of charter city which was governed by different rules for 99 years before it was ceded back to the People’s Republic of China by Great Britain in 1997. The second type of development tool for Colombia explored in this paper is John Kasarda’s “aerotropolis.” An aerotropolis is a city built around an airport. Traditional cities sprang up around existing trade routes along navigable waterways or where road and railroads met and crossed. The twenty-first century equivalent of that, according to Kasarda, is where “highways in the sky” interact with productive facilities on the ground at or near airports to be part of an ever-growing global supply chain. In this paper, some possible locations for charter cities and aerotropolises in Colombia are explored and their economic impact is assessed. The paper concludes that both can assist Colombia in reducing poverty and income inequality, but with certain qualifications. It also suggests that a hybrid of the two, an aerotropolis that is also a charter city, can significantly contribute to Colombia’s economic development.
  • "An Actor Oriented Empirical Model of the Roots of Terrorism" (2011)
    ASBBS 14th International Conference
    This paper presents a model that describes the process which might cause terrorism. To define the circumstances from which terrorism is most likely to emerge, a series of multiple regression analyzes is employed. The findings are that domestic terrorism is more likely to appear in fragmented societies with a certain degree of frustration without, however, confirming “poverty-rooted” explanations. The article concludes that the “political access school” explains the number of terrorist groups more convincingly than the frequency of terrorist attacks. The term “Arab Spring” refers to the series of demonstrations and revolutions taking place in Arab countries in early 2011. This model forecasts a longer period of transition and instability, although democracy itself will cause political violence to decrease in the long term. At the same time, preventing actual forms of “home-grown” radicalism in Europe means taking seriously the frustration and exclusion felt by young Muslims living in Western countries. This requires an understanding of “integration” that includes the whole society. Financial aid is a necessary, but not a sufficient, answer. The frustration and exclusion felt by these individuals seems to be stronger than deprivation.
  • "Germany's Demographic Transition and International Trade, 2000-2040" (2011)
    ASBBS 14th International Conference
    This paper is a study of how Germany’s aging and declining population in the twenty-first century is directly related to its international trade patterns and indirectly to other aspects of the economy that also affect patterns of trade. The United Nations estimates that Germany’s population will decrease by 6.4% from its 2005 peak to 2040. Germany’s median age is estimated to increase by 25% during the same period. In addition, the percentage of the population aged 65 and over is estimated to rise from 16.3% to 31%. The implications of these dramatic demographic changes for the German economy are discussed and connections are drawn from these changes to their effects on Germany’s international sector. The literature on the effects of such changes is briefly surveyed with an emphasis on areas such as demographic transition in Germany and international trade in the German economy. The effects of demographic change in the workplace, effects on economic growth, saving, investment, and capital formation, and effects on invention, innovation, and technological advance are discussed. Conclusions and interpretations about the effects of demographic transition on Germany’s international trade are then drawn.
  • "Economics and Forensics of Fraud and Abuse by Tax-Exempt Religious Organizations Versus the First Amendment" (2010)
    The 2010 International Business & Economics Research Conference
    This study focuses on the conflict between First Amendment rights of churches and religious organizations and the need by public authorities to investigate and regulate abuses of tax exemptions. The relative lack of accountability of religious organizations opens the door to a number of abusive schemes and scams. The IRS has attempted in recent years to improve its ability to enforce regulations pertaining to tax-exempt organizations. The number of Tax Exempt tax returns examined by the IRS has increased by 106% from 2005 to 2009, the number of examinations in 2009 still amounted to only 1.24% of returns filed. At the state level, the number of prosecutions and legal actions taken in 2007 by states was a total of 513, just slightly more than 10 per state. Given the obstacles faced by Federal and state enforcement authorities, self-regulation and self-policing by charitable and tax-exempt organizations are likely to be the only way the faithful will receive additional protection against those who would use religion as a tool to mislead them and misappropriate their gifts.
  • "A Study of the Effects of Backshoring in the EU" (2010)
    ASBBS 13th International Conference
    With the increased globalization and trade liberalization of the mid-1990s and later,the pace of offshore outsourcing [offshoring] increased. Companies in the EU were seeking lower labor costs, access to new markets, and a good place to produce output tailored to local needs and tastes. But many of them failed to adequately weigh the costs of offshoring against its benefits, and have encountered problems that include product quality, logistics, inflexibility, and others. Those firms that who returned all or some of this production home are said to have “backshored” or “reshored” it. The literature on backshoring is briefly surveyed and backshoring is then analyzed with international trade theory. This paper includes discussions of the debate over offshoring, and summarizes the available reports on backshoring activity in the EU.
  • "The Printing Press Was Invented in 1440, So Why do we Still Lecture?" (2009)
    Mini-Conference on Technology in the Classroom
    The use of a handheld interactive audience response system can help our students achieve a higher percentage of learning and retention than the inefficient “chalk and talk” method. At this presentation, the iClicker system was used to introduce the concept and usage of clickers to attendees. Attendees [up to 40] were lent a clicker to use as they played the role of students in a clicker class. A number of methods for enhancing classroom instruction with clickers were demonstrated.
  • "An Analysis of Offshoring Manufacturing to Reduce Costs" (2009)
    ASBBS 12th International Conference
    Offshoring as a specific form of outsourcing has been growing in scope since the 1970’s. The process gained speed with “Y2K” concerns in the late 1990’s and with the installation of greater amounts of transoceanic fiber-optics. Large IT projects are commonly shared among facilities in several parts of the globe. However, offshoring of manufacturing presents problems not present in offshored IT work. Lured by the appearance of large savings in direct labor costs from offshoring, many firms have rushed into moving manufacturing and product development offshore with inadequate analysis of and preparation for the difficulties involved. By some estimates, no more than 20% of companies that engage in offshoring of manufacturing actually benefit from it. Recently a retrenchment has occurred, as management has realized that the additional costs of offshoring may have exceeded the benefits. This paper presents a framework for analysis of the challenges and opportunities faced by firms as they address this issue for themselves. An example calculation of manufacturing labor cost is given and additional factors that should be considered in the offshoring decision are presented and analyzed. All the costs and benefits of locating manufacturing and product development outside the home country should be carefully weighed to determine if higher profitability will be the result.
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