Meet the Graduate Students
Current Students:


Adhikari, Sanjay

Education:  Thomas Aquinas College (Santa Paula, CA), BA in Liberal Arts

Philosophical Interests: Ancient Philosophy (especially Aristotle and Plato),Philosophy and Theology of St. Thomas Aquinas, Modern Philosophy (especially Kant and Hegel)

Alexander, Jacob

Education: Thomas Aquinas College—BA, Liberal Arts; Center for Thomistic Studies—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: Natural Philosophy and Metaphysics

Publications:

Contributing Editor “Knowing, Loving, and Defending the Family” by Fr. Sebastian Walshe. Published by St. Michael’s Abbey for their own use.

Other Activities:

Mr. Alexander is presenting at the Philadelphia meeting of the American Maritain Association this March.  His topic is "Scientific Theology: Natural and Supernatural Perfections."

Bielinski, Maureen

Education: Ave Maria University—BA, Philosophy; Center for Thomistic Studies—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: ethics; the virtues; moral psychology; Thomas Aquinas; Aristotle 

Publication: “Merit and Propassions in the De Tristitia Christi: Scholastic Perspectives,” Moreana 33 (June 2016), 73-118.

Presentations:  

“‘Omitting to Think’ and Sins Against Prudence,” presented at 52nd

International Congress on Medieval Studies at University of Michigan in Kalamazoo, 12 May 2017; “A Temperance of the Memory and the Imagination: The Thomistic Virtue of Studiositas Reexamined,” presented at 2016 Annual American Catholic Philosophical Association

(ACPA) National Convention, San Francisco, CA, 4 November 2016.

Recent activities: 

“Virtue, Happiness, and Self-Transcendence” seminar participant, Virtue Project, University of Chicago, 18-23 June 2017; 

“The Passions of Christ’s Agony in the Theology of Two Thomases,” discussed in seminar, “The Theology of More's Tower Works,” Center for Thomas More Studies, University of Dallas, Irving, Texas, 7-8 November 2014; 

“Virtue and Free Will” workshop participant, Third Annual Thomas Aquinas Philosophy Workshop, Catholic and Dominican Institute, 13-16 June 2013 

Block, Isaac

Education: University of New Mexico—BS, Pure Math; International Theological Institute, Austria—STB, Sacred Theology; University of St. Thomas—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Boyer, John

Education: Thomas Aquinas College—BA, Liberal Arts; University of St. Thomas—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: Ancient Philosophy, Aristotle, Philosophy of Religion, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics

Conferences and Presentations:

“MacIntyre, First Principles, and the Impossibility of Scientific Knowledge,” American Maritain Association Conference, in New York, NY, February 25-27, 2016

Commentator on Jonathan Buttaci, “Cognitive Capacities and States in Posterior Analytics B 19,” 39th Annual Workshop on Ancient Philosophy, Rice University, Houston, TX, February 19-20, 2016.

“Modeling and Aristotelian Demonstration,” American Catholic Philosophical Association Conference, Session on “Aristotelian Foundations of  Science and the Modeling of Nature: Studies in Honor of William A. Wallace, O.P.”, Sponsored by Society for Thomistic Natural Philosophy, in Boston, MA, October 8-11.

“Analyzing Divine Eternity in Aquinas,” American Catholic Philosophical Association Conference, “Satellite Session I,” Sponsored by the American Catholic Philosophical Association, in Boston, MA, October 8-11, 2015. 

Co-Authored with Daniel Wagner, “Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas on ‘Better Known’ in Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics and Physics,” 50th International Congress of Medieval Studies, Session on “Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas I: Metaphysics”, Sponsored by the Center for Thomistic Studies, University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX, at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, May 14-17, 2015.

“The Coherence of Divine Eternity in Thomas Aquinas,” Center for Thomistic Studies Colloquium Series, University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX, February 27, 2015.

“The Coherence of Divine Eternity in Thomas Aquinas,” 3rd Marquette University Graduate Student Chapter of Aquinas and the ‘Arabs’ International Workshop, at Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, February 20-21, 2015.

Chair of Session “Habits in Illuminative Cognition,” American Catholic Philosophical Association Conference, in Washington DC, October 9-12, 2014.

“The Interrelation of Cause and Explanation”, Houston Graduate Philosophy Symposium, Co-Sponsored by University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX, University of Houston, and Rice University, at Rice University, Houston, TX, May 1, 2014.

“From Effects to Causes: A Posteriori Reasoning in Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics II.2-10,” Center for Thomistic Studies Colloquium Series, University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX, April 4, 2014.

“Are Cause and Explanation Coextensive Terms?”, CUA Graduate Conference, on “Cause and Explanation,” at The Catholic University of America, Washington D.C., February 21-22, 2014.

Co-authored with Geoffrey Meadows, “Thomas Aquinas: Teacher of Transhumanity?”, Houston Graduate Philosophy Symposium, Co-Sponsored by University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX, University of Houston, and Rice University, at University of Houston, Houston, TX, November 8, 2013.

Co-authored with Geoffrey Meadows, “Thomas Aquinas: Teacher of Transhumanity?”, First American Conference of the Pontifical Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas on “Thomas Aquinas: Teacher of Humanity,” Co-Sponsored by the Center for Thomistic Studies, University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX and The John Paul II Forum, at University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX, October 17-19, 2013.

“Eternal God: Divine Atemporality in Thomas Aquinas,” Sam Houston State University’s First International Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Thought, at Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, April 4-6, 2013

“The Primary Sense of Substance in Categories Five and Metaphysics Seven,” CUA Graduate Philosophy Conference, on “The Categories,” at The Catholic University of America, Washington D.C., March 22-23, 2013

Publications: 

Co-Authored with Geoffrey Meadows, “Thomas Aquinas: Teacher of Transhumanity?”, in Thomas Aquinas: Teacher of Humanity, edited by John P. Hittinger and Daniel C. Wagner (Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015).

“Eternal God: Divine Atemporality in Thomas Aquinas,” in News from the Raven: Essays from Sam Houston State University on Medieval and Renaissance Thought, Edited by Darci N. Hill (Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014).

Berns, Phillip

Education: B.A. Philosophy--Tulane,2009;M.A.Philosophy--Tulane,2010;M.T.S.Theology, Notre Dame Seminary, 2013

Current Status: PhD student

Philosophical Interests: Political philosophy,ethics, philosophy of education

Recent Activities (Conferences attended, presentations, etc.):
2017 Acton University Hansen Fellow a unique, four-day exploration of the intellectual foundations of a free society. Guided by a distinguished, nternational faculty, Acton University is an opportunity to deepen your knowledge and integrate philosophy, theology, business, development - with sound, market based, economics.

Cherny, Joseph

Education:  The Catholic University of America—BA, Philosophy

Current Status: MA Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: Ethics, metaphysics

Conferences Attended: 

2015

  • Texas Medieval Association Conference on “Pain and the Privation Account of Evil”
  • Houston Graduate Philosophy Symposium on “Is Pain a Counter Example to the Privation Account”
  • Fifth Annual Aquinas Workshop on “Aquinas and the Philosophy of Nature”
  • American Catholic Philosophical Association

Cuen, Humberto

Education: Universidad Iberoamericana—BA, Philosophy; San Diego State University—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: Metaphysics, Thomas Aquinas, and George Berkeley

Davis, Lowell

Education:  M.Div. Oblate School of Theology, 1968; M.A. Philosophy, University of St. Thomas, 2010; 

Current Status: A.B.D. University of St. Thomas - Topic Political Unity in the Philosophy of St. Thomas

Philosophical Interests: Political Philosophy; Ethics.

Recent Activities: Writing dissertation.

Other Interests: Gregorian Chant in the Novus Ordo Liturgy. Member of the National Association of Pastoral Musicians.

Grimes, Andrew J.

Education:
B.A. in the Liberal Arts from Thomas Aquinas College

M.A. in Philosophy from the University of St. Thomas, Center for Thomistic Studies

Current Status:
Doctoral Candidate in Philosophy, University of St. Thomas, Center for Thomistic Studies

Grimes, Rose

Education: B.A. in the Liberal Arts from Thomas Aquinas College

M.A. in Philosophy from the University of St. Thomas, Center for Thomistic Studies

Current Status: Ph.D. Student of Philosophy University of St. Thomas, Center for Thomistic Studies

Grossheim, Joseph

Education:
Aquinas College, Nashville—BA, Theology/Philosophy

Current Status:
MA Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: 
Ethics, Politics, Human Person, Metaphysics, Friendship

Haines, Jon

Education: Franciscan University at Steubenville—BA, Classics and Philosophy; Franciscan University at Steubenville—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: Philosophy of Science, Faith and Reason, Bioethics and Natural Law

Conference Presentations:

“Naturalistic Fallacy v. Natural Law,” Presented at Louisiana State University, April, 2011

“Veritas Intactilis” SCSP Conference, February 2014

Hoang CRM, Father Ignatius

Education: Conception Seminary College, BA; Notre Dame Seminary, MDiv

Current Status: MA Student at the Center for Thomistic Studies

Jacobs, Timothy

Current Status: PhD student at the Center for Thomistic Studies.

Specialization: Action Theory, Philosophy of Mind, Virtue Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas.

Competence: Ethics, Philosophy of Religion, History of Philosophy.

Education:  MA in philosophy at the University of St. Thomas, MDiv at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary; ThM at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, BA in Philosophy at California Baptist University.

Current Activities: Adjunct Professor of Philosophy at Lone Star College, Houston Community College, and Columbia Southern University.

Publications:

Peer-review articles and book contributions

 “Virtue.” Jonathan Edwards Encyclopedia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017.

 “Golden Rule.” Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2014.

 “Virtue/Vice Lists.” Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2014.

 Reviews and popular publications

James: Life Group Study Guide. Edited by Timothy Jacobs. Bardstown, KY: Crossing Church of Bardstown, Inc., 2015.

Review of God in Proof: The Story of a Search From the Ancients to the Internet, Nathan Schneider. First Things 241 (March 2014): 64.

Passion Devotional: Six Weeks of Prayer, Fasting, and Meditation on the Supremacy of the Cross and the Power of the Resurrection. Norco, CA: First Baptist Church of Norco, Inc., 2011.

Conference Papers:

“Aquinas On Semantic Realism And Analogy Of Being.” American Catholic Philosophical Association, San Diego, CA, November 8–11, 2018.

 “Thomistic Compatibilism and Sufficient Reason.” American Catholic Philosophical Association, Dallas, TX, November 16–19, 2017.

“The Erring Conscience and Freedom of Religion: A Thomistic View of Pluralist Society.” Philosophy and Humanities Conference, Houston Community College, Houston, TX, November 3–4, 2017.

“The Moral Status of Intellectual Virtue in Thomas Aquinas.” Society of Christian Philosophers (Midwest), Houston Baptist University, Houston, TX, October 13–14, 2017.

“Expression of Intention and Final Causality.” Evangelical Philosophical Society (Southeast), The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, KY. March 17–18, 2017.

“Does the Bible Presuppose Natural Law?” Evangelical Theological Society (Southwest), New Orleans Baptist

Theological Seminary, New Orleans, LA. April 11, 2015.

“Theological Metaethics and the Philosophical Interpretation of Scripture.” Evangelical Philosophical Society (Southeast), Beeson Divinity School, Birmingham, AL, March 21, 2014.

"Consent Measures Teleology: Peter Abelard on Assessing Bodily Acts." Medieval and Byzantine Studies Conference. The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., April 19, 2013.

Jones, Brian H.

Education: B.A. in Theology Franciscan University of Steubenville; M.A. in Theology Franciscan University of Steubenville; M.A. in Philosophy University of St. Thomas

Current Status: ABD, Center for Thomistic Studies, University of St. Thomas

Philosophical Interests: Ancient (Greek) and Medieval Political Philosophy; Modern and Contemporary Political Thought; Religion and Political Theory; Liberalism

Publications: 

Peer-Reviewed

“Pilgrimage, Home, and the Paradox of Political Philosophy,” Under Review, City-Journal.

“Wendell Berry, The Liberal Arts, and the Quest for Place.” Forthcoming in an anthology from the “Leisure and Labor: Liberal Arts and the Professions,” Conference at St. Gregory’s University. Ed.  Anthony Coleman. Catholic University of America Press, 2019.

Professional Print and Online Journals
“Health and the Economy,” Forthcoming, Catholic World Report.

“Can the Narrative of Liberalism Cultivate a Good Society?,” Forthcoming, City-Journal.

“Why We Should Come Together.” Forthcoming, City-Journal.

“Narrating the Tradition of Liberalism’s Anti-Tradition,” Front Porch Republic (January 28, 2019).

“Can American Social Life be Restored Through Practices Alone?” Catholic World Report (January 21, 2019).

“Vigano’s Critics and the End of History,” Catholic World Report (October 22, 2018).

“A Defense of Schall on Islam,” Catholic World Report (September 25, 2018).

“Culture as the Discovery of Meaning,” Front Porch Republic (August 23, 2018).

“Is Plato’s ‘Feverish City’ Good?” The Imaginative Conservative (July 15, 2018).

“The ‘Me Too’ Movement: What Would Plato Say?” The Imaginative Conservative (May 16, 2018).

“The Theological Need for Mediation: Reflections from Tocqueville,” Front Porch Republic (April 20, 2018).

“The Civic Character of a Front Porch,” Strong Towns (April 20, 2018).

“Education and the Quest for Association,” Front Porch Republic (April 4, 2018).

“The Practice of Attachment and A Comprehensive Social Order,” Front Porch Republic (March 14, 2018).

“Civic Chaos and the Myth of Autonomy,” Public Discourse (January 25, 2018).

“Is Democracy Responsible for the Present Loneliness Epidemic?” The American Conservative (January 15, 2018).

“Bringing it Home: Moving Away From False Economic Measurements.” Those Catholic Men (January 11, 2018).

“The Decline of Connection,” Strong Towns (January 5, 2017).

“Seeing the Meaning of Sports in a Regime of Politicization.” Catholic World Report (October 8, 2017)

“Amy Barrett, Augustine, and the Relation Between Religion and Politics.” Public Discourse (October 8, 2017).

“Arguments About How to Participate in Our Broken World Are as Old as Humanity,” The Federalist (October 6, 2017).

“Political Theory, Travel, and the Love of Home,” Public Discourse (August 29, 2017).

“What is a University For?” The American Conservative (August 9, 2017).

“Tenure and the Common Good of the University.”  The Imaginative Conservative (August 1, 2017).

“Culture and Divine Revelation,” Those Catholic Men (July 29, 2017).

“Truth or Happiness? A Proposal on Teaching Young People.” Those Catholic Men (July 22, 2017).
“Capitalism and The Quest for Community.” Public Discourse (July 20, 2017).

“Attached to Our Places: The Foundation for Citizenship,” Strong Towns (July 18, 2017).

“City or Countryside?” Those Catholic Men (July 15, 2017).

“What Happens When Socialization Shifts From Front Porches to Coffee Shops,” The Federalist (July 3, 2017).

“An Ancient Lesson for Understanding Contemporary Politics and Religion,” Anamnesis: A Journal for the Study of Tradition, Place, and ‘Things Divine,’ (June 2, 2017).

“Seeking Holiness and Wholeness in an Age of Technology,” Catholic World Report (May 30, 2017).
“Do You Want to be Educated?” Those Catholic Men (May 20, 2017).

“Does Contemporary Technology Discourage Thought?” Crisis (April 3, 2017).

“On Giving Too Much To the Human,” Anamnesis: A Journal for the Study of Tradition, Place, and ‘Things Divine,’ (March 13, 2017).

“Losing Our Roots and Ourselves: Structural Flaws in Contemporary Education,” Catholic World Report (March 3, 2017).

Lambert, Keaton

Education: University of Notre Dame – BA, Philosophy and Theology; University of St. Thomas, Center for Thomistic Studies – MA, Philosophy.

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: Political Philosophy, Metaphysics, Natural Theology, Existentialism, and Logic.

Recent Activities (Conferences attended, presentations, etc.): 

Keaton Lambert presented his paper on "Falling vs. The Fall: Heidegger and Aquinas on the Human Condition" at the Aquinas and Postmodernity Project's satellite session during the 2018 annual meeting of the American Catholic Philosophical Association (ACPA) in San Diego, CA. He also chaired an ACPA sponsored satellite session on "Philosophy, Catholicism, and Public Life" at the same meeting.

During the summer and fall of 2018, Mr. Lambert worked closely with Dr. Theodore Rebard to revise and transcribe Dr. Rebard's unpublished textbook, An Introductory Course in Metaphysics.

He attended The Catholic and Dominican Institute’s Seventh Annual Philosophy Workshop, “Aquinas on Metaphysics” at Mount Saint Mary College from June 29 – July 2, 2017.

Mr. Lambert has also worked as a tutor for the University of St. Thomas' undergraduate and graduate students in the areas of Philosophy, Theology, and general writing since 2015.

Langley, Catherine

Education:

Thomas Aquinas College—BA, Liberal Arts

Current Status: 

MA Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Lomanno, Matthew

Education: St. Anselm College—BA, Liberal Studies; University of St. Thomas—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: ABD, Center for Thomistic Studies.  Dissertation Title, “The Philosophy of Art in Aristotle and Aquinas”

Philosophical Interests: Philosophy of Art, Moral Philosophy, Applied Ethics, Medical Ethics, Aristotelian and Thomistic Philosophy

Publications: 

“Health Care Proxies and Advance Directives,” in Catholic Healthcare Ethics: A Manual for Ethics Committees, Second Edition, 2009.

“The Possibilities and Problems of Transhumanism,” The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 8:1 (Spring 2008), pp. 59-68

McCloskey, Patrick

Education: Pontifical University of the Holy Cross—BA, Philosophy; University of St. Thomas—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Moore, Matthew

Education: University of Dallas—BA, Philosophy; University of Dallas—MA, Theology; University of Dallas—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Newton, Annie R.

Education: Aquinas College, Michigan, BA, Philosophy

Current Status: MA Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: Epistemology, History of Philosophy (especially ancient and medieval philosophy), Philosophy of Nature, and the principles of ethics in Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas

Nguyen, Thao

Education: St. Mary’s University of Minnesota—BA, Philosophy

Current Status: MA Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Plaza, Francisco

Education: A.A. Pre-Engineering Studies--Palm Beach Atlantic University, 2009; B.S. Mathematics/Philosophy--Palm Beach Atlantic University, 2011; M.A. Philosophy--Center for Thomistic Studies, 2013. 

Current Status: PhD Student.

Philosophical Interests: Ancient, Medieval, Modern, and Contemporary Political Thought; Religion and Society; Philosophy of Culture; Ethics; Philosophy of Jacques Maritain; Philosophy of Karol Wojtyla.

Conferences and Seminars: 

Attended Abigail Adams Institute Seminar, “Tocqueville, Murray, and the American Proposition,” at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 2017.

Presented  “Maritain’s Philosophy of Culture: A Bridge between Metaphysics and Politics,” at the American Maritain Association meeting, New Orleans, LA, in 2017.

Attended Program on Integrative Knowledge and Human Flourishing Seminar, “Kierkegaard and the Happy Life” at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 2017.

Presented “Jacques Maritain’s Philosophy of Culture,” at the American Catholic Philosophical Association satellite session “Society for 21st Century Thomism,” San Francisco, CA, in 2016.

Attended Elm Institute Summer Seminar, “The Search for Order in History” at Yale University, New Haven, CT, in 2015.

Presented  “Subjectivity and the Prise de Conscience in Jacques Maritain,” at the American Maritain Association meeting, San Francisco, CA, in 2015. Selected for the outstanding graduate student award for the year.

Attended Witherspoon Institute Summer Seminar, “First Principles” at Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 2014.

Presented  “Wojtyla’s Broader Sense of Alienation,” at the American Catholic Philosophical Association satellite session "Society for Thomistic Personalism," Indianapolis, IN, in 2013.  

Publications:

“Subjectivity and the Prise de Conscience in Jacques Maritain,” in Engaging the Times, ed. Joshua Schulz, American Maritain Association, 2017. 

Poage, Nathan

Education: San Diego State University—BA, Philosophy/Classics; San Diego State University—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: ABD, Center for Thomistic Studies; Dissertation in Progress: Aristotle, Avicenna and Aquinas on the Subject and Principles of Metaphysics (Dr. Houser, Director, Dr. Sommers and Dr. McGinnis—Professor of Philosophy, University of Missouri).

Polsky, Elliot

Education: MA, Philosophy—University of St. Thomas (Houston); BA, Philosophy, Economics, Catholic Studies—University of St. Thomas (St. Paul)

Current Status: PhD student

Philosophical Interests: Areas: logic, general natural philosophy, metaphysics, philosophical theology. Times: medieval, ancient.

Ribeiro, Rodrigo

Education: Federal University of Tocantins, BrazilóBA, Bachelor of Laws; Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul óMA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Schaff, John Michael

Education: Seattle University—BA, Philosophy/German; University of St. Thomas—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Sicam, Julian

Education: Benedictine College, BA in Philosophy

Current Status: MA Student at the Center for Thomistic Studies

Publications:

“Why are Superheroes so Popular? Here’s What Aquinas has to Say.”  Voyage Comics and Publishing  (February 1, 2019).

Conferences and Presentations:

Attended American Catholic Philosophical Association Conference, November 8-11, 2018.

Attended the Symposium on Advancing the New Evangelization, Benedictine College, March 10-13, 2018

Smalley, Annie

Education: Denison University—BA, Philosophy and Political Science; SUNY Center Stony Brook—MA Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Candidate—Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: Aquinas, Aristotle, Heidegger

Stambaugh, Evan

Education: B.A. in Theology, Aquinas College, Grand Rapids, MI

Current Status: M.A. Student in Philosophy at the Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: History of Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Continental Philosophy, Philosophical Theology

White, Brandon K.

Education: Louisiana State University—BA, Philosophy

Current Status: MA Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Philosophical Interests: Platonism

Williams R., Evan

Education: Hillsdale College—BA, Philosophy/Classical Studies; Marquette University—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: PhD Student, Center for Thomistic Studies

Zents, Jeffrey

Education: University of Texas, Dallas—BA, Philosophy; Washington University—MA, Philosophy

Current Status: ABD, Center for Thomistic Studies; Dissertation in Progress: Abstractive Thomism and the Pyrrhonian Skeptical Tradition (Dr. Martin, Director, Dr. Knasas, Dr. Osborne).